The case for “Subtle Energy” original Draft 1: 1/16/10
Rename: Subtle Energy and Science
“Try and penetrate with our limited means the secrets of nature and you will find that, behind all the discernible concatenations, there remains something subtle, intangible and inexplicable.” - Albert Einstein 
Modern physics recognizes four energetic forces: gravity and electromagnetism, which act over macroscopic distances, and the strong and weak nuclear forces, which act within the atomic nucleus.
Yet there is a diversity of opinion within the western scientific community regarding the nature of electromagnetism. A rich tradition of mavericks, highly qualified scientists such as Alexander Gurwitsch, Harold Saxton Burr, Herbert Fröhlich, Robert O. Becker, and more recently Fritz-Albert Popp, Jacques Benveniste, Mae-Wan Ho, William Tiller, Cyril Smith, and Glen Rein have suggested there is more to electromagnetism on the human scale than is presented in the conventional literature.
This paper proposes to assess the mainstream scientific communities’ perspective on the nature of electromagnetic energy and how this might be consistent with the development of non-conventional scientific thinking.
Traditional Subtle Life Energies
The history of human experience also recognizes energetic forces:
Common to many of the world’s wisdom traditions is the idea of a spectrum of energies and consciousness.  Ancient Indian Aurevedic tradition, over 5000 years old, speaks of a universal energy called Prana, the breath of which gives all living things life.
The human energy field, according to this tradition, includes an etheric, astral, causal, and spiritual body. A Chakra system is said to be a kind of transformer system which connects the human being to these energy bodies.
The Chinese, in the 3rd millennium BC posited the existence of a vital energy they called Qi or Ch’i. This Qi is said to contain two polar forces, yang and yin.
Kabbalah, the Jewish mystical theosophy of 538 BC refers to Astral Light, which may manifest around people. 
A universal energy, perceived as a luminous body, was first recorded in western literature by the Pythagoreans about 500 BC. Paracelsus called this energy “Illiaster”, and said it was composed of a vital force and vital mater.
Early Western explorations into the Human Energy Field
In the 1800’s, Baron Karl von Reichenbach made a fortune in iron, steel and metallurgy. In 1839 he retired , devoting himself to scientific research. He accumulated an abundance of experimental evidence on a force he called Odyle or Od. This force was distinct from heat, electricity, and magnetism, and he believed it was the one recognized by the ancients. This force had polarity, and it could also be conducted by metals, glass, resin, silk, and water. 
In his early career a distinguished Freudian analyst, Wilhelm Reich searched for physical evidence of the “life force”, (as he called it). His research led him to announce that he had identified this universal energy, which he called orgone, and that it could be accumulated in boxes made of alternating layers of organic and inorganic materials. Peering into the darkness within such boxes, a dull green dance of energy could be seen, moving in characteristic spiral formations. When Reich claimed that this accumulated orgone could be used for weather control and healing, he brought the full wrath of orthodoxy down onto his head, and he died in an American jail in 1957. 
The Eeman relaxation circuit, later called “biocircuit”, was developed in the 1920s.
It consists of two units; each unit consists of a copper handle attached to a copper screen by a length of wire.
By laying flat on one’s back and placing one screen under the pelvis, and holding the corresponding handle in the right hand, and placing the second screen under the back of the head, and holding the corresponding handle in the left hand, these units will facilitate the flow of some form of energy within the human body. This energy will relax unblocked body tissue, but will also be drawn to areas of residual muscular tension, which will then tighten, so we become aware of these areas. This energy will then “work” on the tight areas until the tension has been completely released. The validity of the biocircuit is slowly becoming professionally accepted. 
Since it matters which hand is connected by the biocircuit to head or pelvis, this energy has polarity. It is also conducted by silk, and is therefore similar to odyle energy described by Reichenbach. Reich’s orgone enrgy was also conducted by silk, However, sources apparently do not list polarity as a characteristic of orgone.
Eeman found that multiple people can be connected by a series of
biocircuits, and that drugs introduced into the biocircuit would effect all of those
present in the biocircuit. Peter Lindemann, who carried on biocircuit
research in the 1960s, concluded that “the relaxation
circuit must be able to carry detailed vibrational information”, and found
that the highly controversial radionics, now illegal in the
Biological based Bioelectromagnetics: The Human Energy Field
The effectiveness of electromagnetic treatment of certain conditions is well established. Three types of electrical stimulators were approved by the FDA in 1979 for treatment of certain types of bone fractures.  The American Physical Therapy Association acknowledges the use of Electromagnetic therapy for a number of conditions. 
Yet a distinction has been made between electrical properties based on chemical reactions and based on intrinsic electromagnetic properties. The former, the basis of our drug oriented western society, has been in vogue for over two hundred years. However, this may change. Chemistry alone cannot account for all observations.
The International Institute of Electro-Magnetic Biological Stimulation Therapy notes: “Reputable medical and therapy Journals have published peer-reviewed research articles that attest to the medical properties of the various electromagnetic therapies. Yet some of the treatment effectiveness mechanisms are little understood.” 
as 1797, Alexander von Humboldt resolved a dispute between Luigi Galvani and
regarding the cause of frog legs response to electricity. He
showed that Galvani had discovered two separate mechanisms for the response:
bimetallic (ie chemical) generation of voltage, and intrinsic animal
electricity. However, according to Marco Bischof, experiments were performed in
the mid 1800s at
The founder of modern vitalism, German biologist and philosopher Hans Driesch, first noted the field properties of organisms based on his experiments with fertilized sea urchin eggs in 1892. Driesch came to believe in “entelechy” as a vital force he considered to be undefinable in terms of physics and chemistry.
In the early 1920s, Hans Spemann, Alexander Gurwitsch and Paul Weiss independently postulated "morphogenetic fields" to explain certain properties of developing organisms.  Gurwitsch postulated that “mitogenetic radiation” from onion roots (now known as biophotonic emissions), might regulate cell growth and differentiation. Such emissions were verified by other researchers, but the suggestion that they might regulate anything was ignored.
In the US, work by Harold Saxton Burr, E. J. Lund, Robert O. Becker and others led to the conclusion that organisms tend to express quasisystemic electric changes; ie not related solely to chemistry, when perturbed, and, conversly, will tend toward wellness either through endogenous repair currents or the application of equivalent external currents. 
Burr was E. K. Hunt Professor of Anatomy at Yale University
School of Medicine. In 1932, his observations led him to propose the
"electro-dynamic theory of development." Burr's research contributed
to the electrical detection of cancer cells, experimental embryology,
neuroanatomy, and the regeneration and development of the nervous system. 1935 saw the publication of his general papers
(with F.S.C. Northrop) "The electro-dynamic theory of life" and (with
In his book The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, orthopedic surgeon Robert O. Becker [1923-2008] champions the importance of vitalism; i.e. biologically based, as opposed to chemically based electromagnetism. Based on his experimental work, he presents a number of interesting hypotheses.
He notes that healing of fractures occurs in presence of complex electrical activity and suggests an invisible template must exist for limbs to build themselves. He discovered that we appear to have two nervous systems; a central nervous system (CNS) composed of nerves, and a perineural nervous system (PNS), surrounding the nerves. Intermittent electrical impulses travel down a nerve fiber, while a continuous DC electrical signal travels thru the nerve sheath. In the skin, there are direct nerve to epithelial cell attachments called neuro-epidermal junctions (NEJs), which are crucial for healing. Perineural cells (the PNS) and NEJs make up the physical structures which guide the healing properties inherent in DNA.
Becker found that measurable direct current (DC) voltage differences were associated with acupuncture points, that electrical energy flows through the Chinese meridians, and that the NEJ junctions connect to the meridians. It is these NEJs that create the minute direct current of injury required for healing.
Becker also concluded that bone is a semiconductor and piezoelectric; i.e.; it converts mechanical stress to electrical energy, and showed that a specific DC wave configuration corresponds to every act of consciousness, emotion, and intellect.
Studies have found that sustained positive emotions are associated with a distinct mode of functioning, called psychophysiological coherence, in which the nervous system acts as a unified “antenna,” which is tuned to and responds to the electromagnetic fields produced by the hearts of other individuals.
Psychophysiological coherence implies brain and heart coherence, and implies brain entrainment to the heart.
When the brain entrains to the heart waveform, an electrocardiogram of the heart brain combination shows that the brain wave patterns are, in fact, embedded within the larger field of the heart. The timing of neuronal firing conveys several times more information than the brain alone. The body’s immune system is boosted, the effect of disorders are reduced, and overall healing rates are enhanced.
When the heart is entrained to the brains waveform, the heart begins to, over time, lose coherence. The more the heart entrains to the brain, and the longer it does so, the less it displays a variable HRV, the less fractal its processes are, and the more regular it is. Unhealthy emotional states (major depression and panic disorders, for example) correlate with reduction in HRV as well as reductions in the power spectral density of the heart (power spectral density refers to the range and number of electromagnetic waves produced by the heart).
To be healthy, the heart must remain in a highly unstable state of dynamic equilibrium; the brain must entrain to the heart.
Some sources state that the EM info-energy field of the heart forms a torus shape of energy around the body. 
Most images show a torus with its central axis aligned vertically along the spine. An actual HeartMath diagram shows that this field is actually tilted by about 45 degrees.
Sources also speak of this field being “apparently holographic” in the sense that “any point within the torus contains the information of the whole field.” 
Today’s science recognizes geomagnetism, which is defined as the effect of earth’s electromagnetic field. This field results from the interaction of the magnetic core of the earth and the ionosphere, and varies as the moon revolves around the earth, and as the earth revolves around the sun.
Without the effect of the solar wind, which distorts its shape, the internal geomagnetic field observed near the earth’s surface would be poloidal; ie the lines of force form parallel rings around a toroidal (donut) shape. The field in the core, however, would also contain some lines of force that form a spiral or helix around a toroidal (donut) shape. 
A “Torus” is simply a donut shape, which may be of three types; ring, horn, or spindle. The shape of a torus may be of a physical substance or of energy.
The idea of a torus, describing the earth’s geomagnetic field, came up in describing the electromagnetic field associated with the heart. It will come up again in a discussion of a certain class of electrical coils.
Robert Becker  describes briefly the dynamic scope of geomagnetic energies our earth is enveloped in:
The earth's surface and the ionosphere form a resonating cavity that produces low frequency pulsations called the Schumann Resonance. This is a set of spectrum peaks in the ELF portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonance is due to the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acting as a waveguide. The limited dimensions of the earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance is at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz. Detectable overtones extend upwards into the kilohertz range.The phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. 
The nominal average frequencies observed are 7.8, with harmonics at 14, 20, 26, 33, 39, and 45 Hz, with slight diurnal variation.
The Schumann resonance is imbedded in and effected by numerous natural energy transmissions, which themselves may have further direct effects of the earth’s inhabitants.
Since the seventh overtone lies at approximately 60 Hz, the cavity is also driven by the North American power grid.
Solar Flares (and sunspots and prominances) shower the earth and ionosphere with charged particles, causing magnetic storms, with attendant effects of the Aurora Borealis and Austrialis (Northern and Southern Lights)
Every lightning flash releases a burst of radio energy which travel along the magnetic lines of force and bounce back and forth beween north and south poles before fading out. (Further, lightning flashes and storms are associated with only recently discovered upper atmospheric phenomena such as "elves", "sprites", and "jets".)
The earth surface and the Ionosphere act as charged plates, building up an electro static potential of hundreds of thousands of volts.
Large DC currents flow within the Ionosphere and within the earth (telluric currents), which interact and form additional electromagnetic fields.
The magnetic field of the sun is divided from pole to pole in sections of opposite polarity so that every eight days a new section effects the earth. The transition form one to the next section induces several days of turbulence in the geomagnetic field.
Effects of Geomagnetism on Human Beings
Being electromagnetic in nature, biological organisms have been shown to be sensitive to the complex processes of geomagnetism, or more accurately, geoelectromagnetism. The extent of human sensitivity has not been completely determined, however certain effects have been documented.
It turns out that the alpha and theta brain waves or states of all mammals are entrained with the Schumann resonance, which is important in synchronization of diurnal and ELF brain rhythms. In one experiment, student volunteers lived for four weeks in a hermetically sealed environment that screened out magnetic fields, specifically the 7.83 Hz frequency. These students started suffering emotional distress and migraine headaches which were immediately cleared after a brief exposure to 7.83 Hz. frequency. 
In the coherent heart/brain system of neurocardioligy, since the heart and brain are entrained, the heart/brain system is also entrained with the earth’s magnetic field through the Schumann resonance. Based on the findings of HeartMath, this means a direct link between DNA and the geomagnetic energy field, which is in turn linked to the sun and other celestial bodies.
human sites, including ancient mounds, burial places, prehistoric standing stones, and old
churches, have been shown to have a relatively high
energy content. In 1978, Paul
Devereaux formed the "Dragon Project" To study "earth
energy" at sacred sites. The name was taken from a Chinese symbol for
terrestrial currents. Using scientific
monitoring, this project has concluded that the location of
stone circles in
Project researchers reported unusual visions, which Devereaux speculates may have been caused by mild hallucinations. He and his co-workers believe megalithic builders could sense these energy fields, and co-located their building projects with them. 
Michael Persinger is a cognitive neuroscience
researcher and professor at Laurentian University,
The US Geological Survey (USGS) recognizes earthquake lights to be a real phenomena, noting that most are white to bluish flashes or glows lasting several seconds, are associated with moderate to large earthquakes, and have been reported infrequently by observers since ancient times. “A satisfactory theory to explain EQL, however, has been elusive and is still not agreed upon. Proposed mechanisms include piezoelectricity, frictional heating, exoelectron emissions, sonoluminescence, phosphine gas emissions, and fluid injection (electrokinetics), but the most recent theory suggests that EQL are caused by separation of positive hole charge carriers that turn rocks momentarily into p-type semiconductors” 
Interestingly, the latest biological/Human Energy Models find that the human organism is actually a kind of complex semiconductor, making it a quantum entity. 
In his book Earth Lights Revelation,  Paul Devereaux argues that earthquake lights represent a new type of energy.
John Burke has argued that humans were able to amplify the natural background electromagnetic energy levels occurring at ancient sites. 
Natural radioactivity, especially high concentrations of radon, also occurs at a number of sites. Ultrasound energies were detected at the RollRight Stones, a megalithic site 20 miles NW of Oxford, England.
Devereaux also notes that it is interesting that certain prehistoric mounds were also constructed from alternating organic and inorganic layers, much like Reich's orgone accumulators. 
The polarity of atmospheric ions has been shown to correlate with human physical end emotional health. Negative ions are believed to be healthful, because they facilitate oxygen absorption, while positive ions are believed to be harmful.
Earth Energy Grid Theory
A wide body of
literature exists on earth energy grid theory. This earth radiation is a theoretical geophysical phenomenon described
primarily by the German authors Manfred Curry and Ernst Hartmann. They both
describe a mystic force field (similar to Odic force, Mana, Qi) that covers the
earth at regular intervals and can be detected by dowsing using a divining rod.
It is not supposed to be detectable by common scientific instruments. Placing people or other living things in certain spots of
the earth radiation knots is believed to be beneficial/harmful
depending on radiation flow direction. It connects to the Gaia philosophy and
vitalist school and is very popular in certain New Age circles in Europe,
Bill Becker and Bethe Hagens, building on the work of Ivan P. Sanderson, developed a planetary grid system with the earth represented by a 120 point polyhedron [the Unified Vector Geometry 120 Polyhedron] . Sanderson provided the baseline structure by locating vile vortices, or areas of the Earth where mysterious disappearances, mechanical failures and other anomalous phenomena were seen to occur. Dr. Lefors Clark has contributed to the energetic interpretation of the map, introducing such concepts as the "diamagnetic energy vortex". The creators of this map see it as describing the "matrix of cosmic energy" that encircles the Earth. 
The Curry Hartmann grids, as well as the work of Becker and Hagens is typically labeled pseudoscience. However, science based facts appear to support some of these notions. Some connect the energy associated with the Curry-Hartmann lines with the geomagnetic Schumann resonance and telluric currents, which are detectable by scientific instruments. 
Further, there is some truth to “good” and “bad” earth energy. Under ground water flow has been shown to be a potential health issue. When water is forced under hydrostatic pressure through tiny micro channels, an electric current is generated due to the friction, pressure and ion content of the water. ” When this flow is large, as in the case of underground aquifers, the current produced may be large enough to produce Electromagnetic effects in structures above, and health effects in the building inhabitants. 
In 1922 Alfred Watkins discovered what he perceived to be a linear alignment in the position of ancient mounds, burial places, prehistoric standing stones, and old churches. There had long been an idea that there was some other significance to these “ley lines”; that perhaps they were aligned with magnetic forces.  Allegedly, some ley line points (ie, the intersection of ley lines) possess higher magnetic energy than the average.  These intersections occur in all manner of structures including megalithic stone sites, burial mounds, and churches. Thus, via the research of Devereaux, this increase in magnetic energy could simply be due to proximity of the structure to geological faulting. Further, the significance of the ley lines as marking energy routes is severely challenged by the fact that the ley lines themselves appear to be random. It has been found that 80 four point alignments can be found in a set of 137 random points. 
Classical Maxwellian electromagnetic theory however, does not incorporate all of Maxwell’s original thoughts on the subject. Maxwell admired Michael Faraday, and felt his concept of an electrotonic state was worthy of study. With the aid of work by George Green, William Thompson, and George Gabriel Stokes, Maxwell found a mathematical expression that matched exactly Faraday’s concept. He developed a physical interpretation: the angular momentum of a localized electromagnetic field. Like a flywheel, the localized field would store energy, reacting with a counterforce to resist any change in angular momentum. This takes the form of an electromotive force which could drive a current.
In the Dynamical Theory Paper, Maxwell expressed his results in eight equations for the electric and magnetic fields. Today’s four canonical Maxwell’s equations omit electrostatic scalar potential, magnetic scalar potential, and magnetic vector potential. 
Chen Ning Yang, of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York, confirms that Maxwell identified his vector potential with Faraday's electrotonic state. He also notes that the vector and scalar potentials do have measurable meaning in quantum mechanics, and should not be completely eliminated.. 
This fact has been confirmed in other papers, including one from Caltech. 
In 1959, Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm proposed that a moving electron can have its phase altered by the vector potential of the electromagnetic field of a nearby object, without actually encountering the object or its magnetic field. Using an advanced form of electron microscope, in several sets of tests, Akira Tonomura demonstrated conclusively in 1982 and 1986 that the Aharonov-Bohm effect was real. “Physicists may differ in their interpretation of the AB effect, but no one doubts its existence”. 
Gerhard W. Bruhn, Dep. of Mathematics, Darmstadt University of Technology, has argued that vector potential cannot exist in the physical world, because its effects cancel out. He argues that “The AB-effect does not depend on "super world" properties of A that are not visible in the physical world – the knowledge of H (the magnetic field) is sufficient.” (H = curl A) 
Since vector potential has a measurable meaning in quantum physics, and if, as some scientists insist, macroscopic quantum systems exist in the form of biological systems, perhaps vector potential has some validity in the macroscopic biological world. Even if Bruhn is correct, that the vector potential cancels out, the AB-effect is real in the quantum world, and possibly by extension, in the macroscopic biological world. Could those researchers reporting the effects of vector potential fields actually be observing a macroscopic AB-effect?
In the early 1990s, Cyril Smith experimentally demonstrated that potential fields can produce macroscopic effects by imprinting water with coherent information. 
Quantum Biologist Glen Rein observes that Frolich, Popp, and Smith in the 1980s demonstrated that EM fields emanating from the human body are coherent in nature. Smith further demonstrated that the EM fields in the body are quantized by demonstrating that biological systems are sensitive to a single quanta of magnetic flux. Rein reasonably suggests that biological systems are able to function at the quantum level, and therefore biological systems will respond to potential fields, and the action of the potential fields may occur through the quantum fields.
According to Rein, real physical effects of classical potentials are not considered real because classical potentials are not gauge invariant. This has caused several responses from physicists: Some have modified Maxwell’s equations to produce gauge independent potentials. New mathematical expressions can also be used to describe potentials, which also describe energy fields with unique properties. A third approach has been to decompose classical potentials into more fundamental components. Thus, classical potentials can be further decomposed into “super-potentials” and super-fields”. These are often used in supersymmetry field theories and string theories. Super-potentials and super-fields have unusual global properties associated with negative energy states of subatomic particles. 
Sorting out Glen Rein on “non-Maxwellian” electromagnetism
Rein states that physicists are well aware of macroscopic energy fields which are not explained by the classical equations of Maxwellian electromagnetism or Schrodinger’s waves.
According to Rein, physicists today use the term non-Maxwelian, non-Abelian and non-dispersive. He notes that classical EM fields have 1) their E and B vectors oriented perpendicularly (orthogonal to one another) and 2) oscillate perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Standing waves may have both of these properties altered: Some standing waves have their E and B vectors parallel, whereas others oscillate in the direction of propagation. These later are called longitudinal waves. Another type of standing wave is called “force-free,” since the Lorentz force is zero. 
These are also called scalar waves, time reversed waves, solitary waves, and tachyon energy.
Rein uses the inclusive term quantum potential field to refer to any of these fields. “Quantum fields can …be considered a scientific term for the more popular concept of subtle energy”.
Thus, Rein reduces a bewildering diversity of electromagnetic fields to the quantum field.
In attempting to sort out Glen Rein’s perspective, we can note the following:
The Schumann resonance is a longitudinal standing wave. Lightning as well as the aurora and ionosphere form plasmas, and plasma waves such as the aurora in the earth’s magnetosphere may under certain circumstances be longitudinal. It has also been suggested that the earth’s core may be plasma like. Are geomagnetic longitudinal waves, which immerse the earth, the same as “scalar,” force-free, time reversed, and tachyon waves? 
Googling “non-Maxwellian”, one finds the term applied to electron and proton velocity distribution functions in plasmas. “Non-Maxwellian plasmas” for example refers to the particle velocity distribution in the magnetosphere. Plasma waves such as the aurora in the earth’s magnetosphere are longitudinal and exhibit non-Maxwellian velocity distributions.
Force free magnetic field configurations are of fundamental interest in plasma physics. In such situations the magnetic force (JxB) vanishes, implying that the current J flows exactly along the magnetic field B. it is not know if the ideal form exists, but the balance between magnetic and pressure forces (JxB=delta p) is a well known concept of magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. 
In a nondispersive wave medium, waves can propagate without deformation. Electromagnetic waves in unbounded free space are nondispersive as well as nondissipative and thus can propagate over astronomical distances. Most waves in material media are dispersive, however, and wave forms originally set up are bound to change in a manner that the wave energy is more spatially spread out or dispersed. 
In the presence of dispersion, wave velocity is no longer uniquely defined, giving rise to the distinction of phase velocity and group velocity. A well-known effect of phase velocity dispersion is the color dependence of light refraction that can be observed in prisims and rainbows.
Dispersion relations describe the interrelations of wave properties like wavelength, frequency, refraction index, and attenuation coefficient. There are also the overarching Kramers Kroning relations that connect the frequency dependences of propagation and attenuation. 
Reciprocity, a feature of the wave equation, says that if one has a solution to the wave equation, then the time reversal (using a negative time) of that solution is also a solution of the wave equation. This occurs because the standard wave equation only contains even order derivatives. Some media are not reciprocal (e.g. very lossy or noisy media), but many are approximately so, including sound waves in water or air, ultrasonic waves in human bodies, and electromagnetic waves in free space. Mainstream physics has applied reciprocity (time reversal technology) mostly to enhanced focusing of the media. 
Longitudinal standing waves occur in the earth’s geomagnetic field, in both plasmas and non-plasmas.
“non-Maxwellian” refers to velocity distribution functions, not electromagnetism, although the electromagnetic field might be effected.
Force free magnetic fields are normally associated with plasmas.
Wave dispersion is a common phenomenon and may occur in sound as well as in electromagnetism.
The notion of “time reversed waves” is based not on electromagnetism, but on the wave equation, and is applicable in sound as well as electromagnetism. It can be viewed as a form of signal processing.
Although there is a field of “quantum plasma physics”, the above phenomena may occur in a non-quantum environment.
“Quantum Fields” and beyond
We have seen that vector potential, although not considered in classical electromagnetics, was indeed in Maxwell’s original theory. Do other forms of electromagnetism fail to conform to classical (four equation) Maxwellian electromagnetic theory?
Glen Rein has noted that mobius and caduceus electrical coils, which result in a canceling of the electromagnetic field, result in local anomalies with respect to energy, temperature, inertia, mass and gravity measurements.  He notes the first application of self canceling coils was by Nikola Tesla, whose magnifying transmitter used two spiral coils where the oscillations were phased to generate opposing EM fields.  Tesla demonstrated that such coils could transmit energy over long distances without losses.  Tesla used the term non-Hertzian to describe this new energy field because it did not behave according to standard Maxwellian EM theory.
Rein showed that water treated with a variety of self canceling coils shows altered absorption of UV light. (Rein 1992). A bifilar coil, using more simplified geometric windings, was used to determine the relative roles of quantum, vector potential, (A), and EM (B) fields. William Tiller of Stanford provided calculations for the strength of the magnetic (B) and vector potential (A) fields. Both were found to be very small. 10-12 for B and 10-14 for A. the primary field present then, was the quantum field; that is, whatever is left after classical magnetic and potential fields are subtracted out. In spite of this, this bifilar coil produced a small increase in UV absorption, and from this Rein concludes that quantum fields exist, are distinct from B (EM) and A (potential) fields, and are able to induce a measurable macroscopic effect on water.  The idea of quantum potential was introduced by Bohm in conjunction with Schrodinger’s wave equation. 
Rein believes that potential fields may be considered a bridge between quantum and EM fields. Quantum fields are similar to those described in quantum field theory, and by David Bohm’s “subtle information fields”. Classical EM fields exist at the level of Bohm’s explicate order, which has imbedded within it the potential field, which in turn has imbedded within it the quantum field. According to Bohm the implicate order is composed of a series of levels, each imbedded within the next, where each level is increasingly more subtle and fundamental. If one adds to this model the quantum physics of hyperspace, eventually a subtle level will be reached which is higher dimensional. These could correspond to the multiple subtle energy levels of the human chakra system; etheric, astral, etc.
Rein assumes the quantum field exists in this higher dimensional level, and proposes that healing information originates at the most fundamental level in the implicate order, that of spirit.
Using an electrical coil, William Hooper claimed to have identified some fundamental qualitative differences between types of electric fields distinguished by their origin. He patented a “motional electromagnetic field” which has allegedly been shown to be unshieldable. 
Lightning as well as the aurora and ionosphere form plasmas,  and plasma waves such as the aurora in the earth’s magnetosphere may under certain circumstances be longitudinal.  It has also been suggested that the earth’s core may be plasma like. 
Dr. William Tiller finds that human consciousness can generate a physical space "conditioned" by subtle energy, that this subtle energy is related to the magnetic vector potential of classical electrodynamics, and that this subtle energy may result in psi phenomena. The conditioned space effects material properties globally , throughout the room, resulting in oscillations in air and water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity of water. All exhibit the same Fourier spectral components and are in the frequency range from 10-2 to 10-3 hz.  This supports Rein’s observations of anomalies in physical properties associated with certain coils.
Ken Wilber sees the quantum vacuum as prana, which gives rise to matter. He believes David Bohm’s concept of a single implicate and single explicate order was too simplistic. For Wilber Prana is implicate to gross matter; etheric is implicate to prana; astral is implicate to etheric, etc. According to Wilber, Bohm later added several epicycle orders to his theory, including “super-implicate” and “beyond super-implicate” orders, supposedly all based on physics.  He also believes that the etheric, astral, and psychic fields are part of the manifest realm, as is the quantum vacuum (prana) and so they are the proper object of study of science (as “subtle energies). 
Bohm’s implicate-explicate order somewhat corresponds to a spectrum of subtle energies, though for Wilber Prana is implicate to matter while for Rein, potential fields are implicate to the explicate electromagnetic field, in a nested series of “subtle energies.”
Higher dimensional energy fields have been characterized by Rauscher as being complex; ie; they have a real and imaginary component. (Rauscher, 1968). Seiki also used the concept of complex numbers in describing the imaginary components of quantum fields generated from mobius coils. (Seiki, 1990). Imaginary particles are a part of quantum physics according to Dirac, although the energy fields associated with such particles is not part of mainstream quantum physics. 
“Torsion fields” have been studied by several groups of Russian scientists for at least three decades and most of that time in secret. What are torsion fields? According to A. Akimov, these fields come in at least three types: E-fields, S-fields, and G-fields. The E, S, and G stand for Electric, Spin, and Gravity fields. The torsion field, apparently related to the quantum vacuum (?) and its emanations are considered subtle energy fields. They are separate and distinct from classical Electric, Magnetic, and Gravity fields. 
Summary and questions
Maxwell’s Classical equations of electromagnetism omit electrostatic scalar potential, magnetic scalar potential, and magnetic vector potential. They thus do not represent nature’s electromagnetism.
Classical Potentials as well as “quantum fields” can produce macroscopic effects on water.
Electromagnetism can be produced artificially (in coils) in a number of different forms. Do these artificially produced forms occur in nature?
Geomagnetism associated with plasma formations, such as the aurora and lightning, appear to be non Classical. Are other forms of geomagnetism also non classical?
Are such non-classical phenomenon ‘quantum” by default? Are there forms of subtle energy which are non-quantum, either in the earth’s geomagnetic field or elsewhere?
The human temporal lobes appear to be selectively sensitive to “electromagnetism”. Could they be selectively sensitive to potentials and quantum fields, as well as alternative forms of electromagnetism?
potentials and quantum fields, as well as alternative forms of electromagnetism could be considered a form of “subtle energy.”
Bohm’s implicate-explicate order somewhat corresponds to a spectrum of subtle energies, though for Wilber Prana is implicate to matter while for Rein, potential fields are implicate to the explicate electromagnetic field, in a nested series of “subtle energies.”
From the book Subtle Energy by John Davidson
[CW Daniel Company 1988]p. 92:
Ball Lightning and Particle Spin: The research of Dr. Geert Dijkhuis, director of a
 http://www.shentherapy.info/images/Measurement%20of%20the%20Biofield.pdf lists about 20 equivalents of “biofield”
 Chi” is the Wade-Giles transliteration, used before 1979. the PinYin transliteration of “Qi” has been used since 1979.
 Barbara Brennan Hands of Light p. 29 f.
 Not to be confused with bio-engineered circuit development using biological components “biocircuits; eg
 A Double Blind Study of the "Biocircuit" from ISSSEEM
International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, Journal, 1991
American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting
Course: Intro to Neurofeedback, San Francisco May 19, 2003
XV. Literature References
Austrailian Journal of Holistic Nursing
Clinical Applications of The Biocircuit - Eric Leskowitz (reference only)
 Leslie Patten Biocircuits: Amazing New Tools For Energy Health p. 42 f
 http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/107555304322848940 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol. 10 Number 1 2004 pp 41-47.
 Lynne McTaggart The Field p. 48
 Lynne McTaggart The Field p. 48
 Free pdf download of Bcker’s Body Electric is offered: offer is unverified:
 Again; A poloidal magnetic field is a magnetic field in which the EM energy runs in rings around a torus shape. A toroidal magnetic field is a magnetic field in which the EM energy spirals around a torus shape
 The Chapter "Breathing with the Earth", in the book "The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life" By Robert O. Becker, M.D., and Gary Selden. Quill Books, William Morrow and Co., Inc 1985
Mark Seifer notes:
“Over four thousand people attended his April 6 1897 Lecture to the public at the New York Academy of Sciences. His World Telegraphy System finally came into clear focus. His plan was to disturb the electrical capacity of the earth with giant Tesla Oscillators, and thus use the earth currents themselves as carrier waves for his transmitter. Tesla described the process as analogous to a hollow rubber ball filled with water, and to which are attached tubes with plungers. The remaining plungers will vibrate up and down in answer to every movement of any one plunger. The water corresponds to “terrestrial” or telluric currents, and the plungers refer to transmitters and receivers. Seifer notes that in his 1896-97 writings, Tesla has already conceived of a total plan for his WTS, using a number of different wireless modes; including upper air, mechanical resonance (telegeodynamics) and terrestrial currents. Tesla believed that he could broadcast power by producing vibrations in the atmosphere that were perfectly in phase with the natural vibrations that exist in thunderstorms. Anyone with a receiver could simply tap into broadcasts and acquire electricity just as they receive radio or TV broadcasts.”
Although the first suggestion that an ionosphere existed, capable of trapping electromagnetic waves, was made by Heaviside and Kennelly in 1902, It took another twenty years before Edward Appleton and Barnett in 1925, were able to prove experimentally the existence of the ionosphere.
It seems that although Tesla understood and applied the concept of resonance as applied to global terrestrial (telluric) currents, he most likely had no concept of a resonating ionospheric cavity; ie the Schumann resonance.
Paul Devereux Secrets of Ancient and
Sacred Places Blandford
· Freund, Friedemann T., Rocks that Crackle and Sparkle and Glow:Strange Pre-Earthquake Phenomena. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 17, no. 1, p. 37-71,2003.
 Paul Deveraux, Earth Lights Revelation: Ufo's and Mystery Lightform Phenomena The Earth's Secret Energy Force
 John Burke Seed of Knowledge, Stone of Plenty 2005
 John Mitchell, in his book The New View Over Atlantis 1969 notes: “It is difficult not to suspect that this form of energy [orgone] was known and controlled in prehistoric times. Many of the greatest works of the megalithic builders involved the construction of a hidden chamber set deep within the earth or at the heart of some great artificial edi- fice. . .The chamber itsellis lined with stone covered with a layer ofturf and with successive layers of clay and sod. These layers are carefully built up, different types and colours of clay being used at each stage. Finally the whole structure is buried under a great mound of earth.”
Places of Power by Paul Devreux pg 21.
“Dr. Wilhelm Reich called it ‘orgone energy’. - It provides the medium through which magnetic and gravitational forces manifest their influence. - This energy could be trapped or accumulated by the construction of a chamber lined with some inorganic material and covered on the outside with alternate layers of organic and inorganic matter. Many of the greatest works of the megalithic builders involve the construction of a hidden chamber set deep within the earth, or at the heart of some great artificial edifice. - different types and colours of clay being used at each stage.” John Mitchell, in his book The New View Over Atlantis 1969
 Danny Sullivan Ley Lines: The Greatest Landscape Mystery
 “This has been investigated and published about in sources such as Places of power (Paul Devereux; Blandford Press, 1990) and Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Olmec Primacy? (John B. Carlson: Science, 1975) among other sources. Theories of magnetic interaction at ley line points suggest to some observers that these points were used to induct energy. “:
 Vector Potential RAH
 Vector Potential, Gauge Field and Connection on a Fiber Bundle http://qhxb.lib.tsinghua.edu.cn/myweb/english/98n1/980101.html
 http://ww.cithep.caltech.edu/~fcp/physics/quantumMechanics/paths/paths.pdf see chapter 3: Is the Vector Potential Real?
Proceedings of the
 See Dowsing: magnetic vector potential http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Dowsing+as+a+quantum+phenomenon-a0163395919
 Glen Rein The Biological Effects of Quantum Fields www.item-bioenergy.com/infocenter/BiologicalEffectsofQuantumFields.pdf
 Glen Rein The Biological Effects of Quantum Fields www.item-bioenergy.com/infocenter/BiologicalEffectsofQuantumFields.pdf
 Glen Rein :Aspden, 1991
 Glen Rein (Sector, 1916).
 Glen Rein (Tesla, 1904).
 Glen Rein
 Glen Rein: Bohm (1975)
Hooper also proposed that self canceling EM coils can cause a weight change of objects placed underneath . effects due to “motional field” NASA study shows no weight change:
Hooper: "Equivalence of the Gravitational Field and a Motional field
 Some Science Adventures in Real Magic by William Tiller, Walter E. Dibble, and J. Gregory Fandel
 For this reason Wilber believes that Bohm professed a colossally reductionistic game that reduced the levels of biology and psychology to hidden variables in his theory of the quantum mechanics of gross matter-energy.
 Ken Wilber believes that the scientific community which has associated the quantum world and the quantum vacuum with consciousness and spiritual potentiality and are incorrect, because the quantum world and quantum vacuum have physical properties (The vacuum has energy density). “Unfortunately, the physicists who started equating quantum realities with the Tao were simply ill-versed in the philosophical subtleties of the great traditions. Oddly, the original and pioneering physicists themselves—from Schroedinger to Planck to Einstein—refused to make that confusion—refused, that is, to identify the findings of quantum or relativistic physics with any sort of spiritual reality”. Based on the traditional wisdom of many cultures he subscribes to the two truths doctrine, which states that there exists absolute or nondual truth, and relative or conventional (ie scientific) truth, and they are of radically different orders.