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#CCCC111DV"D111"New Physics and the Mind
Robert Paster
Booksurge 2006
Comments in blue.
NOTE: Paster uses the term quantum jump in this book, without an explicit definition. The way he uses it suggests he refers to the collapse of the wave function, although quantum jump normally means the transition of an electron from one energy level to another.
Part 1: Entering the Twentyfirst Century
Chapter 1: TwentiethCentury Physics
Before Einstein, gravity was assumed to propagate instantaneously. General Relativity predicts that gravity propagates in gravitational waves. Although the existence of gravity waves has been inferred from observation of celestial bodies, a gravity wave has never been detected. p. 6.
gravity most troublesome force to integrate into a theory of everything
QMs probabilistic equations have given us a great leap in our accuracy of measurement of space, time, matter and other phenomena.
in the math of quantum physics, the state function the equation for how the state of a quantum particle evolves over time, changes in two different ways: Deterministically, by continuous causal evolution, one step at a time, and nondeterministically, collapse at the time of measurement. P. 910
In quantum physics, multiple possibilities exist are superimposedand it is not until observation or measurement that the state function collapses to just one of these actualities.
Parallel realities are not reduced to a single path until observation triggers a quantum jump.
When the position of a particle is repeatedly measured, the result will not be the same value for each measurement; rather the values will be predicted based on probability by Schrodingers wave equation. P. 10
The thesis of this book is that the quantum jump is a phenomenon at all scales (macroscopic as well as microscopic).
P. 12
schrodingers wave equation incorporates both the parallel deterministic time evolution of the superposed quantum possibilities, and also each quantum possibilitys probability that it is how the quantum system will collapse upon observation.
Schrodinger and Einstein rejected the Copenhagen interpretations observer collapsing the wave function reality, and preferred a realist interpretation.
[how can probabilistic equations lead to such accuracy???]
Chapter 2: Report Card on TwentiethCentury Physics
In his book The Emperors New Mind, Roger Penrose evaluates scientific theories as superb, useful, or tentative
evolution: superb
physics: all superb: Euclidian geometry, Newtonian mechanics, Maxwells laws of EM; special and general relativity; quantum physics, and QED
physics: all useful: the big bang, the electroweak reconsiliation, and quantum chromodynamics.
physics: all tentative: Grand Unification Theories (GUTs), string theories, supersymmetry, and KaluzaKlein theories
Quantum electrodynamics (QED) theories have improved our understanding of electro magnetism. It incorporates special relativity and quantum physics into Maxwells equations. p. 16.
The electroweak theory generalizes Maxwells equations to incorporate the weak force, which is responsible for radioactive decay.
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) addresses the strong force of the atomic nucleus and the constituents of the nucleus, quarks.
supersymmetry: goes beyond unification of the forces to also unify the force propelling particles with the particles of matter.
KaluzaKlein theories; theories of extra dimensions (string theory?) which create a topology that unifies the forces in dimensions beyond three spatial.
seems to require high energy
p. 17.
Penrose was tempted to split his tentative category into a fourth category: misguided
p. 18
Chapter 3: Entering the Twentyfirst Century: String Theories
At the heart of string theory is the concept that time and space are granular, that there is a smallest distance and a smallest time; the Planck length and the Planck time.
Some physicists are skeptical that string theory can be a theory of everything if it attempts to unify the two entities by using the same concept to explain both background independent gravity and the other forces, which are background dependent (???)
p. 21 f.
Because spacetime is granular, there is a limit to the extent that gravity reshapes space. This permits a reconciliation of general relativity and quantum physics and it also permits strings, whose size [length, thickness??] is of the magnitude of spacetimes granules, to be the unifying entity creating all forces and matter.
10 or 11 dimensions are required to construct a set of string vibrations that can produce the patterns of mass and size and other attributes observed for all elementary matter and force particles.
p. 22
[But this is very reminiscent of empirical curve fitting, or allowing enough arbitrary constants so that the matching results can be tailored.]
Supersymmetry holds that, at high enough energies, there is a partnering between every matter and force particle. P. 23.
After the big bang, forces and matter expanded to create the universe we now live in; a universe that is continuing to expand. The string theory hypothesis is that the extra dimensions (5 and higher) remain extremely compressed.
The compression of these extra dimensions is at the heart of much string theory.
p. 25.
It is the premise of this book that string theory has two flaws: it is overly reductionistic, and it has extrapolated from the past too linearly.
it is the premise of this book that a theory of everything may be available from a holistic view of physics.
There is now a serious effort among physicists to take seriously the extra dimensions as concrete and real dimensions of space.
Chapter 4: Ghosts
Trying to visualize higher dimensional spaces
Chapter 5: Entering the Twentyfirst Century: What Is Reality
Chapter 6: Reductionism and Its Critics
Part 2: Physics and the Mind
Chapter 7: Consciousness
Modern philosophers view: The mind is a function of the brain; consciousness is a biological process
Strong AI says that consciousness is nothing more than a collection of algorhythms;
there is no distinction between computer processing and consciousness
Roger Penrose, in his 1989 book The Emperors New Mind, proposes that the human mind is to be understood through the resolution of the conflict between GR and QM.
p. 43.
Chapter 10: The Emperors New Mind
Penrose believes consciousness goes beyond the simple accumulation of more complex algorithms, and supports his argument against the Strong AI philosophy of consciousness by invoking Godels Incompleteness Theorem, which argues that any formal system of logic must depend on accepted principles, called axioms, which cannot be proved in that system. ie, no formal logic system can ever be truly complete. Thus no formal computational system will ever be able to replicate the complexity of the mind and human intelligence.
p. 49 f.
Penrose proposes that before our mind can understand an idea, a physiological process within the brain must form that idea through a series of trials, and each trial must take place below the one graviton level. How is a final dendrite construction settled on when the mind understands a concept ? Penrose proposes quantum gravity.
Penrose and Stewart Hameroff propose that many microtubules acting together, collapse the wave function to create consciousness.
Chapter 11 More Physicists Thoughts About the Mind p. 53 f.
Fred Alan Wolf and Atomic Consciousness: In his book Taking the Quantum Leap: The New Physics for Nonscientists, Wolf proposes that we have become atomically conscious, having gained the ability of using our brains to operate within the world of quantum physics. He proposes atomic consciousness as a mechanism for the development of the modern single mind, which broke through the barrier of separation between the two hemispheres. Wolf is referring to Julian Jaynes controversial 1976 book The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Jaynes hypothesis is that before this breakdown, of about three thousand years ago, humans did not clearly distinguish their self from their environment. The precursor to modern consciousness was presented to these humans as auditory hallucinations, originating in one of the brains hemispheres during novel or stressful situations.
Wolf identifies a specific pair of hydrogen atoms in a molecule at the tail end of an enzyme that operates a protein gate that opens or closes channels that connect a nerve cell to its neighbor. He proposes that the mind observes these atoms, and thus the collapse of the wave function from probability to the actuality of these atoms, allowing they to stabilize in a position that closes the protein gate. P 5354.
Dendrons and Psychons
John Eccles proposed quantum conscious events take place at a vesicle (thin walled sac) of our nervous system synapses. In a 1989 Journal of Theoretical Biology article, Wolf showed that the dynamics of these sacs are subject to the uncertainty principle, and may thus be governed by the principles of quantum physics.
Eccles proposes that vesicular emissions that result in neural firings are chance quantum events subject to quantum probability. He argues that the mind alters this probability,
Based on its intension, thus bypassing any introduction of mind energy into the brain, thus avoiding a possible violation of conservation of energy.
Since a single quantum event is small, Eccles considers thousands of vesicles to form a group (Dendron) of dendrites. Each Dendron is penetrated by a psychon; a mental unit, manifest as a probability field, through which mental intention acts. The brains activities are also registered in the psychons and thus effect our mental state. P. 5456
Family of Quantum Switches
University of Cambridge physicist M. J. Donald proposes that our brains have several different quantum switches, beyond those proposed by Penrose, Wolf, and Eccles, and he focuses on sodium channel proteins, which are involved in the brains neural firing. He proposes a model of the brain as a fmily of quantum switches. P. 36
Endorphins
Richard Mould, physicist at State University of New York, Stony Brook, introduces the term common mechanism to define biological entities involved both in consciousness and collapse of the wave function. He adds to the proposals for common mechanisms the class of proteins called peptides, which includes endorphins. Mould demonstrates that their operation falls within the range of quantum effects subject to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. P. 57.
Deterministic and Nondeterministic Quantum Phenomena
Berkeley physicist Henry P. Stapp proposes another common mechanism: calcium ions in neurons. Stapp is of the school that quantum physics is at its heart a theory of the interaction between mind and matter. He breaks quantum consciousness into three processes. First is the highly reliable and accurate set of deterministic phenomena of the natural world, subject to the Schrodinger equation for the evolution of the quantum wave function. (Isnt the Schrodinger equation the same as the wave function?) Second is the minds, or the observers decision as to where to focus attention. Third is the collapse of the wave function, subject to the probabilities of quantum physics statistical rules, also governed by the Schrodinger equation. One set of rules applied to the Schrodinger equation gives us the deterministic but roll forward of all the unobserved possibilities. Another set of rules applied to the same equation gives the probabilities for how the wave function might collapse upon observation. p. 57 f.
None of the above theories propose that the mind is in direct control of the brain. All of these theories propose that there is active conscious involvement in the minds processes as quantum physics observer. The theories provide various possibilities for the mechanisms that connect quantum events with the mind and brain. Wolf has the mind selecting observations that will confirm collapse at the desired result, whereas Eccles has the minds psychons actually influencing the likelihood of collapse at the desired result.
For some theorists, these views dont go far enough. Many of these theorists incorporate new phenomena, and look beyond reductionism towards the holism of emergence and coherence. P. 5960.
Marshall and Zohar cite the importance of the underlying quantum vacuum: modern quantum field theory describes all existence as an excitation of the underlying quantum vacuum, as though all existing things were like ripples on a universal pond. P. 60.
Wolf discusses quantum psychodynamics, including psychophysical parallel planes and the mathematics of the transformation of feelings into thoughts, and the transformation of intuitions into sensations. Much of Wolfs physical/mental mapping presages the later work. P. 61.
The Implicate Order
A number of physicists studying consciousness have been influenced by David Bohms work, including his 1980 book Wholeness and the Implicate Order. In his hidden variables interpretation of QM, there is an underlying set of unknown and unseen information that governs the otherwise apparently indeterminate quantum outcome, implying that reality is well defined even in the absence of observation. The hidden variables approach implies nonlocality. One interpretation of nonlocality is the instantaneous communication of information, which would appear to violate physics
Postulation of the rule that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light.
(See Pilot Wave Theory)
But within the last decades of the twentieth century, superluminal phenomenawith entanglement as an example, have been experimentally confirmed.
Bohm ultimately proposed that the classical world of appearancesthe Explicate Order is a shadow of a deeper reality, the Implicate Order, within which he finds the deeper nature of human consciousness. P. 6162.
BoseEinstein Condensates and the Sense of I
In Danah Zohars model, chemicals within the blood cause alignment of EM force particles within the molecules of the brains neurons. A unity of consciousness is created when molecular dipoles are so well aligned as to create the fully coherent pattern of a
BoseEinstein Condensate. Thoughts, perceptions, and emotions are ripples on tht condensate. P. 62.
Part Three New Physics
Michelson and Morleys failure to detect the theoretical ether through which light travels, and the bunched frequencies at which a simple black body radiates, led to the theories of relativity and quantum physics respectively. P. 65.
Chapter 12 Quantum Gravity
If air resistance is disregarded, Heavy and light objects fall at the same velocity; the acceleration is the same for each. This seems counterintuitive. Why is this the case?
The answer has to do with the precisely offsetting phenomena of inertia: the larger the mass, the more force it takes to accelerate it.
The question of why inertial mass is equivalent to gravitational mass remains a mystery of gravity.
Lee Smolins book Three Roads to Quantum Gravity proposes his preferred approach to solve the problem of quantum gravity. He sees physicists as using string theories, loop quantum gravity, and black hole thermodynamics to approach a theory of quantum gravity.
Todays extradimensional string theories have proven robust in creating accurate models of the particles and interactions in physics. One string theory pattern produces the properties of the graviton.
String theories are background dependent, the background being spacetime. Since general relativity is background independent (the force of gravity shapes spacetimeis
Spacetime), there is a mismatch between string theory and general relativity, so its hard to see how string theory could provide the necessary bridge to quantum gravity.
P 70
Loop quantum gravity assumes string theorys granularity of time and space, but sets out to remove background dependence. It does this by reducing spacetime to loops, with no background in which the loops reside. The loops interact in a network of knot, links, and kinks.
p. 71
The loop quantum gravity model is a spin network model, because each of the loops have a value associated with the spin of physics elementary particles. The surface and volume of spacetime are built up at the edges and nodes of the spin network. Because spacetime at the planck scale is not localized at a point, these spin networks have come to be called spin foam. A number of physicists note the success of spin foam models at unifying multiple approaches to quantum gravity.
Smolin believes loop quantum gravity is important because of its background dependence, but also thinks string theory is important because of its power at describing forces and matter, and thinks the two are complementary and reconsilable, and interrelate with black hole thermodynamics, the third road to quantum gravity.
After studying black holes, Stephen Hawking has proposed a theory of the universe which includes quantum gravity, based on concepts of imaginary time and the universes
multiple histories.
Smolin proposes that the holographic principle, which quantifies how much information can be containe3d in any region of space, will be the principle that unites the three roads.
In this unified approach, the universe is a network of holograms.
Michael Riordan, who teaches the history of physics at Stanford and UCLA criticizes this approach to quantum gravity. His main concern is with the lack of experimental verifiability of this theory. P. 73
Quantum Gravity: The Holy Grail of modern physics, since it reconciles the two major strands of physics research: relativity, which is largely a theory of gravity, and quantum physics. New theories of QG range from linear extentions of existing science to radical reconfigurations of the nature of the physical world. P. 66.
In a quantum theory of gravity, we would expect to see, in accordance with the standard theory of particle physics, a graviton particle to transmit the force of gravity, as the photon is associated with the electromagnetic force. Gravitons, assumed to have zero mass and travel at the speed of light, have never been observed. P. 69.
Chapter 13 Extra Dimensions
In his 1994 book Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the 10th Dimension, City University of New York physicist Michio Katu discusses the long standing interest in mystic and philosophic speculation on hyperspace.
In the 1920s, Theodor Kaluza from Germany proposed a unification of gravity and electromagnetism, in 4 spatial and one time dimension. Oscar Klein from Sweden refined Kaluzaa work. This theory did much to unify relativity, quantum physics, electromagnetism and gravity by showing that electromagnetic radiation can be modeled as a ripple in the fifth dimension., as Einstein had shown that gravity is a ripple in the fourth dimension.
Soon other two forces, the weak and strong force, would be discovered, which negated interest in the Kuzala Klein unification.
String theory, in its early phase a theory of the strong force and elementary particles, revived an interest in extra dimensions.
Significant momentum is building behind a model in which only gravity exists in the extra dimensions. This would help to rationalize why gravity is such a weak force in our 3d plus time space.
p. 80
Thinking is now that at an earlier higher energy level state of the universe,
The electromagnetic and weak force existed as a unified force.
P 81
Chapter 14 The Universe
To enable an assumed static universe, Einstein postulated, with no supporting evidence, a cosmological constant.
By the late 1920s, Edwin Hubble et al had convinced the scientific world that the universe was expanding, based on the red shift phenomena. P. 86
Cosmologists wonder about the extreme uniformity of the big bangs remnant background radiation. Under the standard big bang theory, communication creating this extremely uniform background Radiation would have had to travel 100 times the speed of light.
Under the standard big bang model, the size of the universe has always been too big: the distance that could be traversed by light during the life of the universe has always been smaller than the size of the universe.
Inflation theory offers an explanation; at a trillion 3 th of a second, this theory says the universe temporarily expanded faster than the speed of light. Inflation was first proposed by Alan Guth.
Electroweak theory calls for the creation of magnetic monopoles at the time of the big bang, but have not been observed. The numbers of magnetic monopoles predicted to ave formed would have been expected to slow down the expansion of the universe. Inflation theory would explain (compensate for) this lack of slowing down. Inflation theory is also said to explain the clumping together of certain regions of the universe (the inhomogeneity puzzle) How inflation ends however, creates another problem that has to be addressd. Why is it that inflation only lasted for a very short specific time? (called the graceful exit problem) The answer is said to involve quantum tunneling. P 88f
Some physicists explain inflation as a natural consequence of the splitting off of the strong force from the electroweak force.
Ideas associating extra dimensions with inflation have been proposed. An early proposal accounted for inflation by modeling the universe with about 40 extra dimensions; in another, the contraction of extra dimensions created inflation. P. 93.
Dark matter
Stars are orbiting their galactic centers too fast for the amount of mass we see in the galaxies. They should be flying out away from their galaxie.
Whole galaxies orbiting within supergalactic clusters show the same phenomena.
It is concluded that there is hidden mass dark matter The consensus today is that most of the matter in the universe is dark. The identity of dark matter is a profound mystery in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
It has been concluded that neutrinos have a very small mass. Because of the large number of neutrinos in the universe, they would account for some, but not all of the dark matter.
Another candidate for dark matter is the WIMP.
Dark energy has a negative pressure; it pushes matter outward (Whereas it holds systems like galaxies together. This seems to be inconsistent.)
Inflation took place at superluminal speeds. This leads to the thought of tachyons; hypothetical particles that move faster than the speed of light.
Tachyons are not ruled out by RT. Relativity only requires that nothing traveling less than the speed of light can ever cross over to travel faster than the speed of light. So tachyons could exist, but they would be beyond our reach because there is no mechanism to cross the barrier of the speed of light.
P 96 f
Alternatives to inflation
Extra dimensions offering solutions to the horizon and flatness problems of the universe have also been considered as an alternate to inflation. Some feel that the concept of an oscillating universe remains an alternative is resolving the issues of flatness, horizon, nd density perturbations.
Penrose is not sold on inflation: inflation theory is based on assumptions of unified theories which he views as tentative. He also points out that inflation requires an initial and final singularity, but introduces no explanation of what triggers these two events.
P 9798.
Mathematician and physicist Adrien Kent comments:
As the twentieth century draws to a close, theoretical physics is in a situationmost unusual: there is no generally accepted authority. Each research program has very widely respected leaders, but every program is controversial But we really are all in the dark.
p. 9899
Chapter 15: Entanglement
Feynman has called the double slit experiment as representing the central mystery of quantum physics.
If a stream of light is sent thru a single slit, it will create a pattern expected from a string of particles: intense light on the surface beneath and directly behind the slit, with less intensity on the surface beneath and further away from the slit on both sides. But if light is sent through two slits, an interference pattern is created. Quantum physics asks, how does light know there are two slits rather than one? how can a light particle passing thru a single slit know whether a second slit is open? This is true if even only one photon is transmitted to the slit at a time; the interference pattern building up one dot at a time. But if we set up a detector, at each slit, to tell which of the two slits the photons pass through, the we will see two sets of the one slit pattern; ie each photon will behave as a article. p. 105
Chapter 16
Entropy and Information: Entropy is a thermodynamic measure of disorder, and conventional science tells us that closed systems migrate in the direction of increasing disorder. Modern physics links entropy with information content: high information content means low entropy.
Chapter 18: Imaginary Time and Multiple Histories
According to Feynmans sum over histories [sum over paths and path integrals],
a particle travels from one point to another by all possible paths. this conception creates a framework for understanding quantum physics probabilistic approach to the physical world. p. 121 f.
Welsh physicist Brain Jospephson studied the join, or junction, between two superconducting materials that are separated by a thin insulating barrier. Even if the materials were ordinary conductors, there would be a small current flow across the barrier due to quantum tunneling. Josephson realized that the tunneling effects for superconducting materials would mean that the current would flow freely across the barrier, with no resistance at all. he experimented with applying various levels of current and magnetic charge across the junction and discovered a whole series of phenomena. For this work he shared in the 1973 Nobel Prize. p. 128.
Chapter 19 Tunneling
The boundaries between adjacent matter are not as clearly defined as we might imagine. Some particles can tunnel into what appears to be another particles territory.
Chapter 20 BoseEinstein Condensates:
Quantum phenomena are generally thought to take place only at the smallest microscopic levels, but BoseEinstein condensates are macroscopic.
In size but appear to have quantum coherence. In the past, this macroscopic characteristic was only observed at extremely low temperatures in superconductors, but evidence has surfaced that such condensates operate in biological organisms.
Chapter 21 Chaos and Complexity
Physicists look at fractal signatures in quantum physics and cosmology and at how a hypothesis of fractal spacetime leads to radical rethinking of space, time, matter, gravity. p. 137.
Chapter 22 Neutrinos
Neutrinos are an elementary particle predicted in the 1930s by theoretical physicists and observed in the 1950s by experimental physicists. Neutrinos had to exist because of symmetry in the pattern of fermions (matter particles.) p. 139.
Decades of experimental attempts were made to try to determine if neutrinos have mass.
If it had mass, it would be a candidate to explain at least some of the universes dark matter. Finally, in the late 1990s, consensus was reached among experimental physicists
that neutrinos have mass, in contradiction to the predictions of the standard model of particle physics. p. 140.
Chapter 24 The Myths of Time and Mass
In his 1999 book The End of Time, Julian Barbour argues that time is a secondary, derived concept, no a basic real phenomenon. Only nows exist, forever n a timeless realm Barbour calls Platonia. Barbour refers to Pitkanens geometrodynamics as close to his own interpretations. P. 148
Space too is an artificial construction.. Only things exist. he uses this framework to help resolve how quantum physics is to be reconciled with general relativity.
why is inertial mass the same as gravitational mass? The Higgs boson is said to give matter its mass. a minority of physicists reject the existence of the Higgs boson, driven largely by its great inelegance.
In The God Particle: If the Universe is the Answer, What is the Question?, Leon Lederman comment on the standard model: Its not simple enough; there are too many parameters to tweak. The Higgs boson is, according to him, a tweak. [note claims have been made that the Higgs boson has been found. p. 149150.
key words to here
Chapter 26: The Fine Structure Constant
In 1936, Max Born wrote a paper The Mysterious Number 137. The number represents the fine structure constant, relating electromagnetic force strength to spacetime quanta
the FSC has been derived as a relationship between the speed of light, the charge of an electron, and Plancks constant, which gives us the smallest size of a quanta. the FSC is used to predict the spacing of spectral lines, and its value is close to 1/137. (ie, it is an irrational number) Numerous special applications of the number 137 are noted in arithmetic, algebra, and geometry.
Analysis of the FSC has been elaborately extended to work on the fractal structure of spaceetime, to the M theory generalization of string theory, to Penroses geometry of tilings and twistor theory of quantum gravity, and to padic math.
other physicists also relate the FSC to various physical and cosmological phenomena, including dark matter and dark energy, inflation, gravity, and the energy associated with the recoil of an atom that has absorbed a single photon.
Recent evidence suggests the fine structure constant has increased slightly since the time of the early universe. p. 163164.
Part Four Speculations
Part 4 provides speculations of ten physicists, slowly introducing themes that the later theories test, reject, refine, leading to fully developed theories of everything as well as the mind.
Chapter 27: Goyaks: Beyond the Standard Model
Physicist G. T. TerKazarian, working at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory in Armenia and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Itally, first presented his theory of goyaks in 1986, and has continued to develop his theory.
Goyaks are the substance out of which both particles and geometry are made.
p. 169
The standard model of particle physics is the core of the academic physics community and is not easily challenged. The standard model is extremely accurate, both macroscopically as well as microscopically.
Problems with the standard model of particle physics:
Unlike QED, QCD is not solidly grounded. The electroweak and the strong force are not fully unified. Quarks have never been observed. Gravity has not been integrated. Many parameters must be adjusted to arbitrary values (28 free parameters) . Values are assumed rather than explained. It is universally accepted that neutrinos have mass, while the standard model predicts no mass.
Problems with the standard model of cosmology:
Dark matter and dark energy (also called vacuum energy) do not exist in the standard model, but appear to exist in reality. The standard model does not explain the origin of the initial conditions at the time of the big bang. There are 10 free parameters.
Some observations of high energy phenomena cannot be account for by either of these standard models.
p. 170 f.
String theory, generalized to incorporate supersymmetry within M theory framework, is the most widely accepted extension of the standard model.
Does the standard model just need a tweak, or de we need a new standard model ?
Strange phenomena
Gravity appears to shape space; space may have more then 3 dimensions; particles may be entangled; we may have a basic misunderstanding of mass and time; the universe appears to be filled with dark matter and dark energy and black holes. subatomic particles may tunnel into other particles territory.
p. 174 f.
Chapter 28 Hidden Physics Countdown: Ten Radical Theories of New Physics
Theories of the French twins Igor and Grichka Bogdanov on origin of the big bang, the nature of the smallest scales of space and time, and topologys role in physics has caused a stir in the academic physic community. Their work has been published in serious physics journals, but some wonder why, and others wonder if their work might be a hoax, comparable to New York University physicist Alan Sokals 1996 paper Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity, published in a social science journal.
p. 179
Paster will present ten hidden radical theories of physics. According to Paster, theories ten through two seem to converge or pave the way for theory number one.
His number one theory is Pitkanens Topological Geometrodynamics, which he says. has it all:
a physicists model of the mind, many aspects of new physics. The mind is central to TGD. Parallel universes, extra dimensions, entanglement, tunneling, information all fall out naturally from the framework of GTD.
He found the following topics in his search of databases:
photons in the brain as a basis for a quantum theory of consciousness;
adaptive resonance permitting the mind/brain interface through quantum holography;
study of physics as of two types: dimensionable and nondimensionable ;
modeling, using category theory and the multiplicity principle, that permit the emergence of atoms from elementary particles, and the emergence of biological and neural systems and consciousness;
consciousness as a form of virtual organization;
quantum information in EEGs and the brain;
atoms and consciousness as complementary elements of reality;
quantum fluctuations as deriving from an elementary consciousness in nature that may also be the source of consciousness in the brain and mind;
psychomas and quantum monads as fundamental elements of consciousness;
websites: quantum mind;
p. 179 f.
Chapter 29 Olavos Rederivation of Quantum as Classical
in a series of 16 papers published from 1995 through 1997, physicist Leopoldino S. F. Olavo of the university of Brasilia rederived all of quantum physics as classical; relativistic Newtonian physics. Although quantum physics corrected classical physics,
it also introduced anomalies inconsistent with classical reality. Olavo turns the orthodox view on its head, viewing quantum physics as derivable from classical physics, and view ing quantum physics as an approximation of classical physics.
Olavo is a realist in his interpretation of physics. Olavo presents algebraic derivations of all of quantum physics operational formulas without reference to observers or wave particle duality. It was shown that his derivation of the Schrodinger wave equation applies only in narrow circumstances, not broadly.
Other radical theorists share Olavos discomfort with quantum quirks; in particular the collapse of the quantum wave function.
p. 185 f.
Chapter 30: Majerniks Geometric Description of Quantum Physics
Vladimir Majernik is a physicist at the Slovak Academy of Sciences in the Slovak Republic. His 1996 article A Geometrical Description of Quantum Mechanics, in the physics discussion journal Physics Essays proposes a geometric model of physics which explains the quantum jump. This article points out the usefulness of three types of models that incorporate extra dimensions: 1) Compactified, 2) time has three dimensions, and 3) an additional 3 dimensions of space and one of time in the imaginary axis of the complex plane. This is Majerniks model
3 dimensions of time provide answers for some questions in physics, such as why the speed of light is constant.
In Majerniks model, events occurring in imaginary spacetime are at certain times projected onto real spacetime. This can result in a quantum wave of possibilities in 8 dimensional space time, being mapped onto a single realized event in our real space time. This geometric projection of the 8dimensional worlds quantum wave onto the 4dimensional real world is Majerniks geometric description of quantum physics.
This approach would explain neutrino mass and QCD (the quantum theory of the strong force.)
Majernik asks if we can develop a classical understanding of quantum mechanics. His geometric approach is similar to Pitkanens TGD. Both are 8 dimensional; 4 real and 4 imaginary.
Chapter 31: Averys Dimensional Correspondence
Avery observes that physics strange phenomena have to do with observation at dimensional extremes; such as the quantum leap at the smallest scales, and time dilation, length contraction, and increased mass at speeds near the speed of light.
According to Averys theory, dimensions are structures of consciousness, arranged to create the appearance of matter. For him, matter is a fifth dimension of space time, and it is a time like dimension. Avery then assigns a correspondence between these five dimensions and the five senses.
Chapter 32: Botta Cantcheffs Phenomenological Spacetime
Brazilian physicist Botta Cantcheff had investigated various routes to the unification of
physics forces and to an understanding of quantum gravity. These routes include topology, generalized geometries, and extra dimensions.
Cantcheff notes that only spacetime local to an event has significance. Phenomenological spacetime is not in existence before a physical event occurs, but instead develops with the event, as opposed to taking place within a backdrop of already structured spacetime. This background independence reflects gravitational exceptionalismthat only gravity shapes space is consistent with a formulation of quantum gravity.
Cantcheff notes similarities between the math modeling of the motion of a single particle
And the math modeling of motion of matter fields. Using this concept, he derives from one particle models of motion a unified field theory for mater and forces, including the force of gravity.
Chapter 33: Spaans Topological Dynamics
Marco Spanns has for many years researched the topology of spacetimethe shaping of the dimensions of the universe. In Topological Dynamics, the universe has a ground state and an excited state. The topological manifoldthe geometric arena of the universal ground state is a specific topological structure, with 23 degrees of freedom and built up from two shapes: handles and threetori (three dimensional tori). He shows that this ground state is not arbitrary, but can be derived from basic principles.
The excited state resembles a lattice of 3D structures, and is the direct reflection of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, providing boundaries on the physical realities we experience. Spacetime provides both the stage for and the performers of physical phenomena, by an interplay between the topological manifold of the ground state and the excited states lattice of 3D topologies.
Spaans brings gravity into Topological Dynamics through the handles, and quantum physics; the superposition principle and field theory, into Topological Dynamics through the three tori. He then assumes three quantities as given: the speed of light, the Planck length, and the Planck mass. From this topological structure, Topological Dynamics predicts the masses and other important qualities of the Standard Model of Particle Physics, explains the excess of matter over antimatter, and incorporates a model for dark energy.
Spanns shows that topological analysislooking at shapes but not sizes can result in conclusions of enormous scope.
Chapter 34: Kafatos and Nadeaus Conscious Universe
Based on their book The Conscious Universe: Parts and Wholes in Physical Reality
By Menas Kafatos and Robert Nadeau, 1990, 2000.
Complimentarity is a concept central to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. It holds that certain physical properties are innately paired such that knowing more about one property means we will know less about another, such as position and momentum; of a subatomic particle as in Heisenbergs uncertainty principle. Measurements of energy and time show this same principle.
The Schrodinger wave equation for the quantum wave function describes deterministically the evolution of a quantum system, as long as that system is not observed or measured. Unobserved or unmeasured, all possible evolutions are superimposed, unfolding in parallel. Upon observation or measurement, the world is no
Longer deterministic, but it is probabilistic. These probabilities are given to us as an additional application of the Schrodinger equation. A particle will be observed or measured not in a specific location determined in advance, but only at a probable location.
For Kafatos and Nadeau, as well as Niels Bohr, both the determining wave and the determined particle create a seamless reality; neither is more real than the other.
Kafatos and Nadeau apply the complementarity principle to view the probabilistic
Quantum event (collapse of the wave function) and the deterministic quantum event
(Schrodinger time evolution) as two sides of the same coin, and see as a result a central role for consciousness.
They note linkages between macroscopic and microscopic universes, and the extraordinary extent of fine tuning of the universe. They consider biological life as a complementary construct to the physics of matter and forces. Consciousness is embedded in the universe at all levels , at all stages and scales.
Pitkanen, and Kafatos and Nadeau both address the central question of how to incorporate the deterministic Schrodinger time evolution and the collapse of the wave function. Pitkanen approaches the issue in a different way.
Rather than to deprivilage collapse of the wave function, Pitkanen embraces the collapse of the wave function as the moment of consciuousness.
Chapter 35: Sirags Reflection Space
The 1994 conference Towards a Scientific Basis for Consciousness held at the U of Arizona, included perspectives of psychology and cognitive science, the philosophy of mind, neuroscience and other medical and biological sciences, neural networks, models of consciousness, quantum theory and nonlocal space and time.
Conference papers on nonlocal space and time offered several perspectives. One framework was that the mind exists in hyperspacetime, outside of normal spacetime.
Another framework refers to psychologist Carl Jungs concept of synchronicityacausal faster than light transmission, including connections between psychic and physical events which Jung relates to the activation of architypes within the collective unconscious . Jungs concepts are brought into a framework of physics and the mind through mechanisms of emergence of nonlocal information in the brain and through connections between the mind and the collapse of the quanum wave function.
SaulPaul Sirag develops an mathematical strategy using the mathematics of reflection space for a theory of consciousness.
Reflection space is an extradimensional space with the property that crystal structures within reflection space are reflected back upon themselves. These hyperspaces and their crystallographic structures have been studied mathematically since the 1930s.
Note that the biological structures have been determined to be crystalline. See PSN paper hef/vo_hef_electromagnetic models.
Sirag uses the math of reflection space in models of particle physics, noting its use by others in numerous applications of physics, including optics, wave mechanics, gravity, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and Twistor structures, which are at the heart of physicist Roger Penroses approach to quantum gravity.
Sirag identifies a particular reflection space E7 which has characteristics permitting the superstring modeling of all forces and matter in 11Dimensional space time. The E7 reflection space has applications in coding theory, including error correcting code, and more generally has applications in analog to digital data tramsformations.
Sirag models the nodes and connecting lines of crystallographuic structures in E7 reflective space, where reflections map one crystal vortex into another. Each reflection changing one vertex into another is a fundamental process of consciousness.
In Sirags model, our experience of consciousness is the mathematical projection of a more complex higher dimensional world onto a simpler spacetime in which our biology permits us to operate.
Note that Kark Pribram has established that our perception is accomplished by our brains sophisticated calculations from data in the frequency domain.
Chapter 36: Sidharths Quantum Black Holes
B. G. Sidharth, of the Center for Applicable Mathematics and Computer Sciences at Indias B. M. Birla Science Centr, is a prolific author and researcher on topics of modern science.
He notes that confirmation that neutrinos have nonzero mass, and confirmation that the universe is ever expanding imply the need for new physics models beyond the Big Bang and beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP).
Sidharth discusses how the quantization of timewith the chronon as times smallest unitleads to an explanation of the arrow of time, as well as extended particleselementary particles that are not just dimensionless points, but that have extended dimensions, as string theory postulates.
Sidharth believes quantized spacetime has to be fractal, or quantized fractal spacetime (QFST), in which he places, and expands upon quantum superstring theory.
The math of QFST is noncommutative
Sidharth uses padic math to describe the physics of his QFST.
p. 212.
Other physicists have also found applications of padic math to their work. Mathematicians have demonstrated that padic numbers occupy a unique place alongside real numbers as the only two complete mathematical systems.
According to Sidharth, QFSP explains some of physics longstanding mysteries, such as how the elusive magnetic monopole comes to exist and why it is so hard to detect. Through QFST, Sidharth has proposed a unification of the electromagnetic force, gravity, and the and strong force.
Quantum black holes are a central mechanism for Sidharths unification of forces, as well as unification of quantum physics and general relativity.
He identifies matter particles fermions with quantum KerrNewman black holes (collapse of spinning massive star), not Schwarzchild back holes, which derive from collapse of a stationary star. This is the key to all of his theories.
The horizon of the quantum black holethe dividing surface from inside of which nothing can escape, including light corresponds to the Compton wavelength.
He generalizes the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and challenges conventional notions of scale.
He notes recent experimental findings of a variation in the fine structure constant, and concludes that dimensionality is not absolute, but depends on the scale of resolution.
The logical conclusion of Sidharths thinking is fluctuational cosmology: the universe was created as a phase transition, a fluctuation in the zero point field. Dark energy, pulling the universe outward, is one consequence.
Chapter 37: Samals Thought Space
Manoj K. Samal, of the S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences in India, has written or cowritten papers on tunneling, gravity, topology, optics, nonlocality in classical physics, and other topics related to the interface between quantum and classical physics.
Samal notes there are several aspects of consciousness:
reflection: the recognition by the thinking subject of its own actions and mental states
perception: being mentally aware of the environment
volition: free will
however at its heart, consciousness is an integrated holistic experience
Samal is skeptical that any reductionist paradigm will succeed in providing a deep understanding of consciousness.
Samal is intrigued by the possibility of consciousness being related to the quantum vacuum. He also discusses the possible role of entropy as a physical basis for defining consciousness in terms of a systems degree of self organization or complexity.
He suggests th4e quantum superposition principle may explain the fuzziness a term from complexity theory of our experience of consciousness.
His unified theory of mind and matter is based on thought space.
For Samal, consciousness is not accidental, but a fundamental property that emerges as a consequence of the laws of nature.
He notes a trend in quantum physics in which information plays a more important role than either matter or energy. In this sense consciousness falls in the domain of physics as the facility for processing information.
He proposes that the physical and biological worlds operate within the geometric arena of traditional 3 +1 spacetime, but in which information operates in an extended space.
Pitkanen follows Samals lead in postulating a manifold of information, embedded 4 spaces, which represent the workings of the mind, modeled in padic math, linked to a manifold of embedded 4 spaces of real classical spacetime.
Pitkanens Topological geometrodynamics (TGD) gives us the structure of Samals thought space and its link to the physical world.
Chapter 38: Pitkanens Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD)
Does Pitkanen yield a theory of quantum gravity which is background independent? Paster went to a lot of trouble to discuss this in the middle of the book.
I see no mention of quantum gravity or background independence in Chapter 38.
Matti Pitkanen earned his doctorate from the U of Helsinki in 1982 with his thesis on topological geometrodynamics. (TGD) He has continued to develop this theme.
TGD is a geometry based modeling of the universe and its dynamics, with the shapes (topology) of space playing a key role in the math modeling. TGD also adapts string theory to create models of the elementary particles, and uses complexity theorys fractal geometry to model quantum theory.
Physics four dimensional spacetime, corrected for special relativity, is called Minkowski space, M4. Correcting M4 for general relativity results in energy no longer being conserved. Pitkanens solution is to imbed the M4 into a higher dimensional spacetime in which energy IS conserved. Pitkanen sees this higher dimensional spacetime as being a space with 4 extra compact dimensions, CP2.
Pitkanen trusts that what we see is what is there, and that for example it is a body which contains molecules which contain atoms, which contain elementary particles; a body that is a 4D universe, enclosing smaller universes and enclosed by larger universes. ???
The imbedding and imbedded M4 universes are connected by elementary particle sized wormholes that exist in CP2 space
In TGD, quantum physics superposition of all possible outcomes is, except for the collapse of the wave function itself, a phenomena of classical, not quantum physics.
During the quantum jump, collapse of the wave function is a time of consciousness.
Consciousness is built into TGD through padic math, which models thought and links the mind with the physical world.
Padic Fractality (p. 221)
Pitkanens early work created multidimensional geometric models of gravity, from which features of the other forces as well as the elementary particles emerged. Pitkan over time, included padic numbers, which are based on prime numbers p that emerge from number theory and are related to fractals. Iteration at greater and greater degrees of resolution is central to fractal geometry.
Prime Numbers and Padic Math (p. 221)
Science observes the unreasonable effectiveness of math as a tool of science. Prime numbers are part of that unreasonable effectiveness. For example, the fine structure constant value of 137 is a prime number.
Scientists note a series of physical and biological systems in which prime numbers play an important role.
Note 371: Kumar Ivanov and Stanley Information Entropy and Correlations in Prime Numbers. HYPERLINK "http://arxiv.org/abs/condmat/0303110" http://arxiv.org/abs/condmat/0303110
Examples range from the periodic orbits of a system in quantum chaos to the life cycles of species. Recent work reports on a potential for which the quantum energy levels of a particle can be mapped onto the sequence of primes. Furthermore, it has been shown that a gas of independent bosons with energies equal to the logarithm of consecutive primes possesses a canonical partition function coinciding with the Riemann function.
Mathematician Kurt Hensel first desribed the padic number system at the beginning of the 20th century. Basing a number system on powers of prime numbers p seems not too different from basing a real number system on powers of 10, 6, or 2. However, there is a major difference.
In the math of real numbers, a decimal numbers size (absolute value) depends mostly on the digit furthest to the left: 8 is the most important size digit in the number 852.
Mathematicians consider the absolute value of a real number to be the real numbers specific implementation of a more general concept, the norm. The norm for padic numbers has to do with the padic numbers last digit, on the right.
in the padic numbering system, we arent always that interested in the digits to the far left, just as in the real decimal system, we arent always that interested in digits to the far right.
in padic math, two numbers based on the same prime p are the same size (have the same norm) if the two padic numbers have the same number of digits to the right.
So padic 478,875,673.08 is close to 234.89.
Padic geometry involves only closed geometric shapes, so padic surfaces have no boundries. A padic line is always a closed loop; it has no endpoint. Ordering can be by hierarchy of enclosure but not of size.
In padic geometry, either one shape is completely inside or outside of another shape, but the shapes never overlap. What matters isinclusiveness and the level of embedding or hierarchy.
Padic geometry relates directly to padic arithmetic. Padic numbers that contain more digits to the right (of the decimal place??) geometrically incorporate padic numbers with fewer digits to the right. A padic number with many digits to the right is large, and is portrayed geometrically as incorporating (encircling) padic numbers with fewer digits to the right.
Padic Math Finds Its Way Into Science (p. 223)
Pitkanen developed a padic description of the Higgs mechanism which is postulated to impart mass to matter.
Other physicists have used padic numbers since the 1980s. For example, Sidharths use in quantum black holes. Castro notes that real numbers are not useful in describing the infinite dimensions of fractal spacetime, but padic numbers are ideally suited to fractal math. Padic math has been applied to particle physics, quantum cosmology, spacetime, gravity, string theory, crystals, tachyons, theoretical principles such as Heisenbergs uncertainty principle, the hidden variable interpretation of quantum theory, quantum probability theory, quantum computing, neural networks, and parallel padic algorithms.
In TGD, biological systems in general, and the brain in particular, are built to mediate between regions of real spacetime, metricized through real numbers, and regions of cognitive spacetime, metricized through padic fields. Padic spacetime is the cognitive representation of the real regions of spacetime in which matter resides.
Rational numbers link real and padic (p. 224)
Rational numbers include all real numbers that can be expressed in closed for, as fractions or decimals. Some real numbers cannot be expressed in a closed form, and are called irrational, such as Pi or the square root of 2. No matter how many decimals in closed form are used, the closed form rational representation of Pi will always be an approximation of the true irrational value. Thus it is said that real numbers complete the rational numbers. But other approaches are possible for how real numbers may be completed. Padic math is one other approach.
Padic and real math are different completions of the rational numbers, but they are fused at points of common rationals, points where the completion of the rational numbers branches off towards eithr a real or padic number fields. Reality and intention are fused at points of common rational numbers, fused more tightly when there are more rational numbers in common. [I dont get it.]
The Ostrowski Theorem (p. 225)
Padic number fields have been studied enough for mathematicians to demonstrate that they create a complete mathematical system. The Ostrowski Theorem states that real numbers and padic number fields, labeled by prime numbers p, define the only completions of the rational numbers; they are the only number fields that contain the rationl numbers asa dense subfield.
Padic math as the math of thought (p. 226)
padic math has been used to simulate features of the thinking process, to model information spaces, and as a formalism for cognitive measurement; To model memory.
TGD physics assumes the fusion of the real physical world with the padic world of the mind.
Many sheeted spacetime (p. 227)
TGD models both spacetime and matter as a hierarchy of surfaces, or sheets, connected through tiny wormholes. The wormhole of the atomic nucleus sheet opens to the spacetime sheet of the atom; The wormhole of the atom opens to the world of the molecule, and so on to the world of the cell, the organ, the organism.
Others have labeled this Eschers dragon, when 4D spacetime imbedded within 8D space has been used to model quantum gravity.
HYPERLINK "http://cds.cern.ch/record/594837/files/0212033.pdf" http://cds.cern.ch/record/594837/files/0212033.pdf
Like Eschers staircases that eternally ascend and descend, TGDs 4D universes infinitely encompass and are infinitely encompassed.
Douglas Ross developed a proprietary systems analysis technique for the Massachusetts company SofTech, Inc. from a conceptualization of systems similar to Pitkanens manysheeted spacetime. To convey the conceptual basis , Ross produced:
Plex 1:Sameness and the Need for Rigor, and
Plex 2: Sameness and Type
The padic world of the mind is, like the physical world, also structured as many sheeted spacetime.
The Quantum Jump (p. 229)
Quantum jumps occur 1039 times per second. The quantum jump is a cognitive process, consisting of state function reduction and state preparation by self measurement. The process is governed by the negative entropy maximization principle, by which the information content of the conscious experience is maximized.
Traditionally, entropy measures the degree of disorder, corresponding to reduced information. Decreasing entropy measure increases in information. In TGD, padic math permits negative entropy, which is a measure of the presence of information.
Negative entropy is useful in neural network modeling, and are at the heart of hypotheses linking gravity, the collapse of the wave function, information, and life.
Self consists of entangled material and mind like spacetime sheets, reminiscent of Zohars formulation of self as a BoseEinstein condensate.
Massless Extremals
The seemingly arbitrary distribution of the strength of physics forces and the sizes of the elementary particles emerges from Padic math and the separation of TGDs spacetime sheets.
Pitkanen finds biochemical evidence of negative energy massless extremals. Massless extremals are topological light rays carrying lightlike vacuum currents and generation coherent light. Massless extremals define a fractal hierarchy starting from elementary particle length scales and extending up to cosmic length scales, acting as quantum holograms, carrying representations across hierarchical levels. Massless extremals can
can serve as Josephson junctions between magnetic flux tubes, and they are building blocks of cognitive structures and the seat of higher levels of consciousness.
TGD and Biosystems (p. 231)
In TGD, biosystems are macroscopic quantum systems. Biosystems are superconductors and superfluids, and take the form of liquid crystals, which have the ability to self organize to complicated structures. (See PSN human energy field/validation_of_hef.doc)
DNAs code holograms to the larger biostructure, which scans with massless extremals.
Positive and negative energy massless extremals are paired and move in opposite directions along the double strands of DNA, generating biophotons. !!!
Biosystems are neutrino superconductors. Neutrinos are ideal candidates for cognitive fermion pairs, matter particles which permit entanglement, which in tern is critical for memory. Thoughts correspond to the creation and destruction of cognitive neutrino pairs.
Under TGDs quantum antenna hypothesis, microtubules create a coherent state of biophotons and possibly gravitons. Microtubules are senders and receivers of coherent light. The massless extremals associated with microtubules and other linear structures are for neuron groupings what radio receivers and radio stations are for us.
Pitkanens theory is not reductionistic; his assigned use of microtubules are different from for example, Penroses association of microtubules with the seat of consciousness. TGDs microtubules are biological structures that physically reach into the fused world of conscious and real many sheeted spacetime to link neurobiology with intention.
In TGD, biosystems are conscious holograms, senders and receivers of remote mental interaction. padic cognitive spacetime sheets are of astrophysical size. Human consciousness involves astrophysical length scales. Our personal and sensory selves are defined by our brains, our bodies, and by the magnetic body delivered by planetary and other cosmic influences.
Brain and Thought Processes (p. 233)
The brain is a fractal associative net, structured to holographically pass information via neuronal windows.
Microtubules and other linear structures act as quantum antennas and generate coherent photons.
Massless extremals (MEs) are associated with EM frequencies. Extremely low frequency
MEs are elements of the EEG. Radio and microwave MEs represent the mental images related to sensory experience. Ultra low frequency MEs with time durations (frequencies??) in the time scale of our life cycles have astrophysical sizes and make possible generalized sensory experiences about transpersonal levels of consciousness. They make possible long term memories.
The general philosophy behind TGDs model of EEGs and nerve pulses is the theory of quantum control and coordination based on the master/slave hierarchy of weakly coupled superconductors controlling each other by Josepheson currents; ie Josephsen junction formed by two superconductors.
Memories (p. 234)
There are no memory storages in the brain. Gravitonic MEs are responsible for memories
Reaching Out to the Universe (p. 235)
Pitkanen looks at neurophysiological evidence for the resonance in the brain of geomagnetic fields (Schuman resonance) and extremely lowfrequency EM fields.
He finds observations of special effects in the EEG frequency range and is inspired to hypothesize that our selves correspond to topological field quanta that have the size and scale of earth. This leads to a rather radical modification of brain centred views about consciousness.
Living matter is known to be susceptible to extremely low frequency EM fields. which, by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle can be shown to correspond to large topological field quanta. (or just long wavelength??) For example, photons in the 10 Hz range
generated by Josephson currents correspond to topological field quanta the size of earth. This suggests biological development that is attuned to planetary effects.
Question: are photons in the 10 Hz range generated by Josephson currents somehow different than 10 Hz photons???
A Jackpot of Private Thinking (p. 236)
Pitkanen is a forceful advocate of new physics that is dissident physics, not Big Science.
Comment on Pasters treatment of Pitkanen and TGD:
On the one hand, Pitkanen claims his theory is ultra antireductionistic, or emergent. A reductionist perspective looks for the system to be build from the bottom up, from pieces, while an emergent perspective looks for system to unfold from the top down.
Yet examples given show pieces, such as for example nerve pulses based on the master/slave hierarchy of weakly coupled superconductors controlling each other by a Josepheson junction, without showing how those emerge from many sheeted spacetime.
On the one hand, what Paster says about Pitkanens use of padic math and many sheeted spacetime is intriguing, but what he says about Pitkanens TGD theory goes way beyond any mathematical model. The references to biophotons, the liquid crystalline form of the human body, microtubules, the holographic nature of the mind and the universe etc, are well known concepts, independent of TGD, and had to be interpreted into TGD.
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